Sanskrit is highly respected in India as their sacred, divine, mother language. When you pronounce these vowels, keep them as short as possible. There are also some with four-consonant conjuncts and at least one well-known conjunct with five consonants. ટ્ ઠ્ ડ્ ઢ્ ણ્ / ટ ઠ ડ ઢ ણ Click here to hear the ca series on YouTube. Submitted by Guest on Thu, 01/23/2014 - 15:46. the 5th consonant in Ka- varga is used in Saarnga along with the 3rd consonant in K-varga. In Sanskrit each letter represents one, and only one, sound. Principles of Breaking Sandhi Recognition of sandhi requires both knowledge of sandhi rules as well as vocabulary to anticipate letters and endings that have undergone a change. To my knowledge only three indian languages use the Devanaagri script viz. શ્ ષ્ સ્ જ્ઞ્ ક્ષ્ ત્ર્ શ્ર્ / શ ષ સ ક્ષ જ્ઞ ત્ર શ્ર Aug 8, 2013 - The Swaminarayan Sampraday was established by Bhagwan Shree Swaminarayan at the end of the eighteenth century in Northern India. [This is meant for people who do not know Indian languages. Since the set of vowels and consonants in Sanskrit are different च् c – as in “chain” but unaspirated “ch”, ञ् ñ – as in the “gn” in Italian “gnocchi” or French “cologne”. When do you articulate the न as dental and when as alveolar? Sanskrit, Hindi and Marathi. These alphabets are hindi,is sanskrit same as hindi? I first thought it is the ‘s’ of English, but I assume, looking at the other answers, that you are asking about the stretched ‘O’ pronunciation in Sanskrit. We are introducing new courses and fun things. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. ं ṃ (the anusvāra) – The anusvara is pronounced as a nasal of the class of the following mute. We are glad to say that our team is growing! When do you articulate “r” as retroflexed and when as alveolar/dental? Vowels: The Sanskrit vowels are, in Sanskrit alphabetical order: a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḷ¯ e ai o au. Around 200 Sanskrit words with phonetic pronunciation have been provided. The Pushpaka Vimaana – Is there truth behind the mythology? પ્ ફ્ બ્ ભ્ મ્ / પ ફ બ ભ મ In order to represent the sounds of Sanskrit in the Roman alphabet, accurately and unambigu- ously, scholars have agreed on a system of romanization now used around the world. Bhavatyaha...is it the feminine ‘your’ or feminine plural ‘you’. At the end of a word and before vowels it is “m”. ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ / ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa, त् थ् द् ध् न् / त थ द ध न Simple Interrogative Words: Who, When, Why, Where and How, Beginners 101: Sanskrit through English ( Course Code: B101E). First, the alphabet is categorized into vowels and consonants as follows: Vowels - स्वराः Vowels are pronounced by a smooth flow of air thro' the mouth. ḳ ḳh g̣ j̣ d̤ d̤h f̣ ṛ l̤ / ḳa ḳha g̣a j̣a d̤a d̤ha f̣a ṛa l̤a, Sanskrit alphabet Submitted by Guest on Wed, 08/02/2017 - 02:08. Pronunciation guide. In the following guide to the pronunciation of Tamil and Sanskrit words as represented by this transliteration scheme, I will not venture to go too deep into the science of phonetics, which is a subject of which my understanding is very limited, but will attempt to offer at least a … Submitted by Guest on Fri, 09/11/2020 - 18:50. This letter is pronounced "li" or "lu" (or l + the sound between i and u). Declensional paradigms (stems ending in vowels), Declensional paradigms (stems ending in consonants), https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/a.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/aa.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/i.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/ii.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/u.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/uu.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/r.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/rr.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/l.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/ll.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/e.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/ai.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/o.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/au.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/k.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/kh.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/g.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/gh.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/ng.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/c.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/ch.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/j.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/jh.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/nj.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/t.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/th.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/d.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/dh.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/n.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/lt.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/lth.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/ld.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/ldh.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/ln.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/an.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/p.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/ph.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/b.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/bh.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/m.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/y.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/cr.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/rrr.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/sl.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/v.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/lll.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/z.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/sh.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/s.mp3, https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/h.mp3, Fact 102 – Some interesting words in our Mother Tongue, Fact 94 – There was a school of Sanskrit analysis that was based on semantics (including thoughts on NASA’s paper “Knowledge Representation in Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence”), Fact 14 – Sanskrit alphabet is scientifically arranged, Fact 38 – Yāska was the greatest etymologist of our Mother Tongue, The Five Values (and the Ten Principles) of Writing as Enjoyment, Fact 26 – There is an amazing amount of literature in Sanskrit, Fact 1 – Sanskrit is 6000 years old or older (excerpt from the upcoming book “Our Mother Tongue: 108 Facts about Sanskrit”), Our Mother Tongue – 108 Facts about Sanskrit, New page on conjugational forms of some common verbs added, Lesson 49 – Analysis of a hymn from The Rig Veda (RV 1.1), Lesson 48 – Features of Vedic Sanskrit – Infinitives, Sandhi and others, Lesson 47 – Features of Vedic Sanskrit – Tense Systems and the Subjunctive, Lesson 42 – Vedic Sanskrit – Introduction, Solution to the Crossword published on 12/4/2018, Lesson 36 – Derivation of Declinable Stems, Updated the page Glossary of terms used to include terms from the recent lessons, Lesson 32 – Secondary conjugations – The causative, Lesson 27 – The future tenses and the conditional, Added a new page and section called Glossary of terms used, Lesson 20 – Athematic verbs – Classes 7 and 9, Lesson 19 – Athematic verbs – Classes 5 and 8, Lesson 15 – Infinitives and potential passive participles (gerundives), Lesson 14 – Verbal prefixes and Continuatives, Lesson 13 – Past participles, passive and active, Lesson 10 – The Imperative and the Optative, Lesson 9 – Pronouns, Relatives and Numerals, Lesson 7 – Declension of stems ending in consonants, Lesson 5 – The imperfect active and vowel Sandhis, Lesson 3 – Vowel gradation, the ten root classes, formation of the verb stems, present indicative active, the middle voice, Meditation as a way to achieve mindfulness, A Historical event in the Rig Veda – The Vr̥ṣā́kapi Hymn (RV 10.86). For the retroflexion rules of na to ṇa see the sandhis page in the grammar reference section. sh ṣ s jñ kṣ tr shr / sha ṣa sa kṣa/xa jña tra shra, क़् ख़् ग़् ज़् ड़् ढ़् फ़् ऱ् ऴ् / ख़ ग़ ज़ ड़ ढ़ फ़ ऱ ऴ Please rest assured the grammatical rules are quite different and unique in each language. The online hypertext Sanskrit dictionary is meant for spoken Sanskrit. ય્ ર્ લ્ ળ્ વ્ હ્ / ય ર લ ળ વ હ श् ś – palatal “sh”; like in “ship” but palatal, ष् ṣ – like “ti” in “motion” but more retroflex. The rule as I understand it (for comments). Pronunciation is a great place to start expanding your Sanskrit repertoire. Click here to hear the ṭa series on YouTube. What is the pronunciation of the Sanskrit letter "ऽ"? For example rāmaḥ as rāmaha रामः as रामह, hariḥ as harihi हरिः as हरिहि and guruḥ as guruhu गुरुः as गुरुहु]. ત્ થ્ દ્ ધ્ ન્ / ત થ દ ધ ન Before consonants (as first part of conjunct consonants) it is dealt with as normal sandhi. ક઼્ ખ઼્ ગ઼્ જ઼્ ડ઼્ ઢ઼્ ફ઼્ ર઼્ ળ઼્ / ક઼ ખ઼ ગ઼ જ઼ ડ઼ ઢ઼ ફ઼ ર઼ ળ઼ Sanskrit alphabets are classified into four groups. After a consonant (as second part of conjunct consonant) it is sometimes retroflexed (eg. Sanskrit Teacher ***** This is a fantastic application. અ આ ઇ ઈ ઉ ઊ ઋ ૠ ઌ ૡ એ ઐ ઓ ઔ ઍ ઑ અઃ અમ્ અન્ For pronunciation purposes it can be simply ignored, i.e. ट् ṭ – as in “total” but with “t” retroflex and unaspirated [Note these retroflex sounds have no European equivalents]. The sanskrit alphabet is well categorized and hence easy to learn. [In front of क् k and ख् kh the visarga, called the jihvāmūlīya जिह्वामूलीय, ẖ is pronounced as a guttural breathing approximately like “ch” of “loch”. a(a) ā(aa) i(i) ī(ee) u(u) ū(oo) ṛ(r) ṝ(r) lṛ(lr) e(e) ai(ai) o(o) au(au), Consonants People who know Indian languages can pronounce these letters naturally as they are used to.] It is however true that almost all Indian (and some Indo-European) languages are derived or at least have a deep connection with Sanskrit grammar and vocabulary even without sharing the script. Click here to hear the diphthongs on YouTube. The Sanskrit language contains 50 letters: 15 vowels, 25 consonants, 4 semi-vowels, 3 sibilants, 1 aspirate, and 2 compounds. Practice pronouncing these. Sanskrit Pronunciation Guide Sanskrit’s breadth of expression comes in part from using the entire mouth for pronunciation, and from elongating accented vowels. Sanskrit follows very consistent rules and pronunciation and contains no “silent letters” as is common in English. Why is pronunciation so important in Sanskrit? In front of प् p and फ् ph the visarga, called the upadhmānīya उपध्मानीय, ḫ is pronounced as a labial breathing approximately like “f”], [However, in many traditions and regions I hear the visarga being pronounced as a full syllable with ह् h and an added previous vowel. One can learn about Sanskrit Letters, Svarāḥ, Vyañjanāni and much more. a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ e ai o au ă ŏ aḥ am an, अं आं इं ईं उं ऊं एं ऐं ओं औं ॐ अँ आँ इँ ईँ उँ ऊँ एँ Hope that answers your question. Devanāgarī / Gujanāgarī / Romanāgarī Alphabet, अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ॠ ऌ ॡ ए ऐ ओ औ ऍ ऑ अः अम् अन् Pronunciation Guide / 3 The Roman letters, letter combinations, and letter diacritic combinations used in Sanskrit romanization are given in English alphabetical order in Table 1. Audio files coming soon for this section. Utter consonants and vowels along with me to learn Sanskrit pronunciation in an adequate manner, and be happy in the process. Before semi-vowels, sibilants or ‘h” it nasalises the previous vowel. So, let us see the alphabet and learn how to pronounce the letters in the following section. 2.1 Sanskrit Aksharas (Alphabets) Sanskrit alphabet is called Varnamala, literally means garland of letters. Note that the retroflexed ळ् ḷ is used in sanskrit only as a subsititute for ड् ḍ between vowels [Example īḷe ईळे for īḍe ईडे.] Lipi is the term in Sanskrit which means "writing, letters, alphabet". “yoga”. How to say Sanskrit. ङ् ṅ – like the “ng” in “going”https://thoughtchariot.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/ng.mp3. Writing Sanskrit Sanskrit is written in a very precise manner. नृपो ऽगच्छत् is pronounced simply 'nṛpo gacchat'. Vowels अ a - as in English "far";… k kh g gh ṅ / ka kha ga gha ṅa, च् छ् ज् झ् ञ् / च छ ज झ ञ [This is meant for people who do not know Indian languages. The order of the letters is based on articulatory phonetics. Traditional arrangement of the Sanskrit alphabet. ः ḥ (the visarga) – pronounced as a voiceless h and is articulated at the tongue position of the previous vowel. Sanskrit, Hindi and Marathi. In a way, Sanskrit is thus easier to read and write than English, where, for example, there are several diGerent ways of pronouncing the same letters (think of thor- Have a good day! Click here to hear the others on YouTube. Your page is very cool, i have bookmarked it. They are 46 in number. It is available at AnandaYoga.org. ch chh j jh/z ñ / cha chha ja jha/za ña, ट् ठ् ड् ढ् ण् / ट ठ ड ढ ण With an alphabet of 49 letters, it has several different versions of familiar sounds such as ‘n’ and ‘s’, each issuing from a different part of the mouth. One person has requested for the use of two consonants here under. Sanskrit is a natural language, meaning its sounds are said to truly represent what they mean. In the last case, that is when the anusvāra nasalises (anunāsika) the previous vowel, it is sometimes represented by the chandrabindu sign m̐. Here is … How to say Sanskrit in English? The term, in the sense of a writing system, appears in some of the earliest Buddhist, Hindu, and Jaina texts. This is a selection of commonly-used conjuncts. the nja part is a combination of 5th and 3rd consonant in cha- varga. Submitted by Guest on Wed, 12/05/2012 - 23:40. For every sound, there is one sign, and each sign al-ways represents the same sound. Submitted by Guest on Fri, 10/02/2020 - 01:09. That's the reason you felt a certain kinship with the Hindi script. Tips and Techniques When a Sanskrit word is written using English letters, it is called transliteration. Team Learn Sanskrit Online, अ(a) आ(aa) इ(i) ई(ee) उ(u) ऊ(oo) ऋ(r) ॠ(r) लृ(lr) ए(e) ऐ(ai) ओ(o) औ(au), य(ya) र(ra) ल(la) व(va) श(sha) ष(sha) स(sh) ह(ha). It contextually refers to scripts, the art or any manner of writing or drawing. Click here to hear the ka series on YouTube. त् t – as in “total” but dental and unsapirated; like the Italian “t” in “telefono”, द् d – as in “different” but dental; like the Italian “domani”. Exactly similar is the situation in the second doubt raised by the person concerned. In Sanskrit, there are no capital or small letters. kra) and sometimes alveolar/dental (eg. I have only finished cpying the leters of the alpahbet and i´m having so much fun. After consonants (as second part of conjunct consonants) it is always dental. Sanskrit alphabet contains lots of sounds that follow a definite pattern. ચ્ છ્ જ્ ઝ્ ઞ્ / ચ છ જ ઝ ઞ અં આં ઇં ઈં ઉં ઊં એં ઐં ૐ ઔં ૐ અઁ આઁ ઇઁ ઈઁ ઉઁ ઊઁ એઁ I believe , the first one, ie. Am not sure of any clear rule here. [However, in many traditions, I hear people using alveolar like in the word swapna etc.]. Before consonants (as first part of a conjunct consonant) [the hook on top as in र्क] it is retroflexed except before “y” य. This guide includes both the Devanagari script of the Sanskrit language and its transliteration. Pronunciation Guide for Sanskrit Alphabet in English. Sanskrit has five "fundamental" vowels that form the basis for the other vowel sounds. Submitted by Guest on Tue, 04/14/2020 - 17:11. Note: Different regions and different schools may have different traditions of pronouncing (dental or alveolar) the above. There are lots of sounds that are produced by combining two consonants. न् n – like “nose” but dental; sometimes it is also pronounced exactly as in “nose” (alveolar). Salomon. Select your prefered input and type any Sanskrit or English word. [That is retroflexed before the वल् pratyahara, but dental/alveolar before others. There is also an aspirated version of ḷh ळ्ह् which is substituted for ढ् ḍh between vowels [Example mīḷhuṣe मीळ्हुषे for mīḍhuṣe मीढुषे]. √ Root Search | Word Frequency | Sandhi | Pāṇini Research Tool | Sanskrit OCR: 931416 Unique Words and 3500+ Years of History Help Feedback One of these five is extremely rare and is not worth studying for some time. Remember that the correct pronunciation of the letters is the key to the correct pronunciation of words and sentences. People who know Indian languages can pronounce these letters naturally as they are used to.]. Submitted by Guest on Wed, 01/06/2016 - 18:10. gra). That's the reason you felt a certain kinship with the Hindi script. For the retroflexion rules of sa to ṣa see the sandhis page in the grammar reference section. “The Sanskrit letters are far more numerous than the poor twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Sanskrit Learning App is an Universal Windows 10 application. ]. ક્ ખ્ ગ્ ઘ્ ઙ્ / ક ખ ગ ઘ ઙ So thrilling to learn Sanskrit, the language dearest to my heart ! For example, the sound "ga" expresses motion, as in the English "go" or the Sanskrit root "gam." Sanskrit Language Sanskrit Words Alphabet Latin Greek Alphabet Ancient Alphabets Ancient Scripts Hindi Language Learning Hindi Worksheets Learn Hindi. र् r – sometimes like in “raven” but sometimes more alveolar and sometimes retroflex, व् v – like in “vixen” but more bi-labial. The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Indic scripts  as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. Pronunciation of Sanskrit with 3 audio pronunciations, 7 synonyms, 13 translations, 2 sentences and more for Sanskrit. Can you kindly provide word-examples using these vowels 8th and 9th ? ka(ka) kha(kha) ga(ga) gha(gha) ṅa(nga), ca(cha) cha(chha) ja(ja) jha(jha) ña(nja), ṭa(ta) ṭha(tha) ḍa(da) ḍha(dha) ṇa(na), ta(ta) tha(tha) da(da) dha(dha) na(na), pa(pa) pha(pha) ba(ba) bha(bha) ma(ma), ya(ya) ra(ra) la(la) va(va) śa(sha) ṣa(sha) sa(sh) ha(ha), अविद्यया मृत्युं तीर्त्वा विद्ययामृतमश्नुते l. HI I am Hariprasad from today I am just trying to learn sanskrit through this tool I got struck with this लृ(lr) letter can you please tell me the letter and how to pronounce this. Sanskrit Pronunciation Guide. These are the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet. Vowels: taught courses and kids zone. Sanskrit is writen in the देवनागरी (Devanāgarī) script. Although I have not found a conclusive answer either way, my research indicates the version recorded a… Click here to hear the semivowels on YouTube. Thank you. Recite the thirty-three consonants in the first column of table C, also adding the short vowel a to each. Click here to hear the ta series on YouTube. y r l ḷ v h / ya ra la ḷa va ha, श् ष् स् ज्ञ् क्ष् त्र् श्र् / श ष स क्ष ज्ञ त्र श्र Please rest assured the grammatical rules are quite different and unique in each language. The app includes a list of over 100 poses, in English and Sanskrit, allowing you to easily click between them for reference. t th d dh n / ta tha da dha na, प् फ् ब् भ् म् / प फ ब भ म Submitted by Guest on Sun, 04/12/2020 - 21:04. Letters in Sanskrit are believed to be loaded with mystic power that are yielded when pronounced correctly. You are right in observing a similarity in the script used for Sanskrit and Hindi. Practice pronouncing these. Some claim that it was once like the regular English "r," as in "rough." To my knowledge only three indian languages use the Devanaagri script viz. to Sanskrit pronunciation for any serious student, no matter which lineages and backgrounds they come from, or which accents and types of mouth and lip movements they may be accustomed to in their native tongues. ȧ ā̇ ï ī̇ u̇ ū̇ ė aï ȯ au̇ OM a̐ ā̐ i̐ ī̐ u̐ ū̐ e̐, क् ख् ग् घ् ङ् / क ख ग घ ङ sanskrit alphabets letters words numbers all information in simple words. 2 / Sanskrit Pronunciation [Play Audio] Part 1 Pronunciation Guide Alphabet and Romanization: The Sanskrit language is written in various Indian scripts, such as Devanagari. Our grammarians have classified it as dental. Have a look at Submitted by Guest on Sun, 08/30/2020 - 12:17. Sanskrit Grammar Reference Alphabet Declensional paradigms (stems ending in consonants) Declensional paradigms (stems ending in vowels) Grammar Reference Books Numerals Pronouns and Pronominal Stems Pronunciation of Sanskrit Letters Sandhis Standard Declensional Endings Tenses and Conjugation Sanskrit Lessons Reference Material Lessons Ancient India Vedas Epics Puranas Current … fat, fate, fare, far) but this is not so in Sanskrit. The main alphabet used by Sanskrit is the Devanāgarī, which can be divided into several parts according to diverse approaches. Adri. Example- Anjali. Click here to hear the pa series on YouTube. ṅka ङ्क, ñca ञ्च, ṇṭa ण्ट, nta न्त, mpa म्प. In English the letter a for example may indicate many sounds (e.g. They are all musical, and they are read – or rather chanted – according to a system given in very old Tantrika works, and are called Devanagari, the speech, or language, of the Gods. Pronunciation of Sanskrit letters In this pre-lesson we will take a quick look at the pronunciation of Sanskrit letters. That’s because, in this complex language, where you place the accent in the word ananda , for example, can literally make the difference between bliss and sadness , as Richard Rosen, who leads our Sanskrit 101 course , … ऋ r̥ – vocalic “r” as the “re” in “prefer” ; ऌ ḷ – vocalic “l” s the “le” in “bottle”; Click here to hear the vowels on YouTube. The other four are below: Let's call these four vowels the short vowels. In this pre-lesson we will take a quick look at the pronunciation of Sanskrit letters. Pronunciations may also differ for some consonants across these languages sharing this script. Guide to Sanskrit Pronunciation There is an audio companion to this document, in which you can hear these words pronounced. At the start of a word it is always dental [However, in many traditions, I hear many people using alveolar here also], At the end of a word it is always alveolar, Within a word, before vowels it is always alveolar. When consonants occur together in clusters, special conjunct letters are used. ṛhas changed in pronunciation over time. Click here to hear the fricatives on YouTube. Spokensanskrit - An English - Sanskrit dictionary: This is an online hypertext dictionary for Sanskrit - English and English - Sanskrit. The consonants are categorized according to their pronouncing style. Sounds Page 1 Sanskrit Alphabet with sounds with other letters: eg's: Vowels: a* aa к kaa I ii к kii u uu к kuu ri* rri* lri lree к klri ˘ e ˇ ai ˆ ˙ кˆ ke ˝ o ˛ au* ˚ ˜ к˜ kau am ah कः kah Consonants: к ka х kha " ga # gha $ na % ca & cha ' ja (jha*) na * ta + tha, da-dha. p ph/f b bh m / pa pha/fa ba bha ma, य् र् ल् ळ् व् ह् / य र ल ळ व ह In Sanskrit, Letters are known as वर्णाः (varṇāḥ). Submitted by Guest on Sun, 12/21/2014 - 07:29. Thanks Atri. It is not a full syllable. To learn the Sanskrit alphabet, follow the pronunciation guideline in table B and table C. Recite the thirteen vowels in table B row by row.